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Λευϊτικὸν - ויקרא

Leviticus - VaYikra [Leviticus]

   CATSS LXX Brenton (1851) Wiki English Translation LXX‎ / World English Bible  Westminster Leningrad Codex Wiki English Translation HB‎ / World English Bible1Lv 11:11καὶ ἐλάλησεν κύριος πρὸς Μωυσῆν καὶ Ααρων λέγωνLv 11:1
And the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying,
Lv 11:1And Yahweh (the) Lord spoke to Moses and to Aaron, saying to them,
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Last Edited: 2024-04-07 Editors: 1
Lv 11:1Lv 11:1וַיְדַבֵּ֧ר יְהוָ֛ה אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֥ה וְאֶֽל־אַהֲרֹ֖ן לֵאמֹ֥ר אֲלֵהֶֽם׃Lv 11:1
¶Yahweh spoke to Moses and to Aaron, saying to them,
2Lv 11:22λαλήσατε τοῖς υἱοῖς Ισραηλ λέγοντες ταῦτα τὰ κτήνη ἃ φάγεσθε ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν κτηνῶν τῶν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆςLv 11:2
Speak ye to the sons of Israel, saying, These are the beasts which ye shall eat of all beasts that are upon the earth.
Lv 11:2“Speak to the children of Israel, saying, ‘These (are) the living things animals which you may will eat from among all the animals that are on the earth.
[translations][edit][history]
Last Edited: 2024-04-07 Editors: 1
Lv 11:2Lv 11:2דַּבְּר֛וּ אֶל־בְּנֵ֥י יִשְׂרָאֵ֖ל לֵאמֹ֑ר זֹ֤את הַֽחַיָּה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר תֹּאכְל֔וּ מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֥ר עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃Lv 11:2
“Speak to the children of Israel, saying, ‘These are the living things which you may eat among all the animals that are on the earth.
3Lv 11:33πᾶν κτῆνος διχηλοῦν ὁπλὴν καὶ ὀνυχιστῆρας ὀνυχίζον δύο χηλῶν καὶ ἀνάγον μηρυκισμὸν ἐν τοῖς κτήνεσιν ταῦτα φάγεσθεLv 11:3
Every beast parting the hoof and making divisions of two claws, and chewing the cud among beasts, these ye shall eat.
Lv 11:3Whatever Every animal parts cleaving (the) hoof,[a] and is cloven-footed forming (from it) smaller, claw-like hooves[b] of two,[c] and chewings the cud[d] among the animals, that these you may will eat.
———
a Gk. διχηλοῦν ὁπλὴν means dividing the hoof into χηλήs (cleaved parts). The lexica indicate the three words used in this verse, ὁπλή, ὀνυχιστήρ, and χηλή all mean hoof, which obscures their distinction and makes this verse confusing. Gk. ὁπλή, hoof, is the overarching word for hoof: Ez. 26:11: ταῖς ὁπλαῖς τῶν ἵππων, the hooves of horses.
b Gk. ὀνυχιστῆρας ὀνυχίζον, is the shaping/forming/making (ὀνυχίζω, "claw-ize," i.e., make like a claw) of the cleaved parts of the hoof (the χηλήs) into smaller, claw-like hooves (ὀνυχίστήρs). (Per Wikipedia: The two digits of cloven-hooved animals...are called claws.... The space between the two claws is called the interdigital cleft....) Gk. ὄνυξ is a talon, claw, or fingernail: Ez. 17:3: ὁ ἀετὸς ὁ μέγας...πλήρης ὀνύχων, the great eagle full of talons; Ez. 17:7: ἀετός ἕτερος μέγας...πολὺς ὄνυχιν, another great eagle (with) many talons; DnTh 4:33: οἱ ὄνυχες αὐοῦ ὡς ὀρνέων, his fingernails (grew) as (those) of birds; DnTh 7:19: ὄνυχες αὐτοῦ χαλκοῖ, (the fourth beast's) claws (were) of brass.
c Gk. δύο χηλῶν, of two cleaved parts. "Cloven-hoofed" specifically means having a two-toed hoof. The phrase διχηλοῦν ὁπλὴν καὶ ὀνυχιστῆρας ὁνιχίζον, cleaving the hoof and forming it into smaller, claw-like hooves does not itself define a two-toed, cloven hoof; δύο χηλῶν makes it two-toed. Hooved mammals, called ungulates, can be one-, two-, three-, or four-toed. Even-toed ungulates are called artiodactyla (lit., even-toed or even-fingered). Sheep, goats, cattle, bison, pigs, deer, antelopes, pronghorns, and giraffes are two-toed ungulates "with two main hooves on each foot, together called a cloven hoof." Camels, llamas, and alpacas, are two-toed ungulates, but walk on their feet, not on their hooves. Hippopotamuses are four-toed ungulates. Odd-toed ungulates are called perissodactyla (lit., odd-toed or odd-fingered). Horses, donkeys, and zebras are one-toed ungulates. Rhinoceroses are three-toed ungulates. Tapirs are four-toed in the front and three-toed in the back. (Elephants are "near-ungulates," having toenails, not hooves.)
d Gk. ἀνάψει μηρυκιστμὸν, regurgitating partially digested food (and chewing again).
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Lv 11:3Lv 11:3כֹּ֣ל ׀ מַפְרֶ֣סֶת פַּרְסָ֗ה וְשֹׁסַ֤עַת שֶׁ֙סַע֙ פְּרָסֹ֔ת מַעֲלַ֥ת גֵּרָ֖ה בַּבְּהֵמָ֑ה אֹתָ֖הּ תֹּאכֵֽלוּ׃Lv 11:3
Whatever parts the hoof, and is cloven-footed, and chews the cud among the animals, that you may eat.
4Lv 11:44πλὴν ἀπὸ τούτων οὐ φάγεσθε ἀπὸ τῶν ἀναγόντων μηρυκισμὸν καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν διχηλούντων τὰς ὁπλὰς καὶ ὀνυχιζόντων ὀνυχιστῆρας τὸν κάμηλον ὅτι ἀνάγει μηρυκισμὸν τοῦτο ὁπλὴν δὲ οὐ διχηλεῖ ἀκάθαρτον τοῦτο ὑμῖνLv 11:4
But of these ye shall not eat, of those that chew the cud, and of those that part the hoofs, and divide claws; the camel, because it chews the cud, but does not divide the hoof, this is unclean to you.
Lv 11:4¶“‘Nevertheless Except from these you shall will not eat of from those that chewing the cud, or and of from those who part cleaving the hoof hooves and forming (from them) smaller, claw-like hooves:[a] the camel, because he it chews the cud,[b] but this one doesn’t have a parted cleave (the) hoof,.[b] he This one (is) unclean to you.
———
a Gk. ὀνυχιζόντων ὀνυχιστῆρας.
b Camelids are three-chambered-stomach pseudoruminants; like four-chambered-stomach true ruminants, they regurgitate and re-chew cud.
c Unlike other ungulates, camels do not walk on their hooves. Taxonomically, camels [and camelids] are cloven hoofed ungulates, but functionally are not considered as "cleaving the hoof," or as having hooves, because they walk on foot pads and their hooves function as toenails.
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Last Edited: 2024-04-11 Editors: 1
Lv 11:4Lv 11:4אַ֤ךְ אֶת־זֶה֙ לֹ֣א תֹֽאכְל֔וּ מִֽמַּעֲלֵי֙ הַגֵּרָ֔ה וּמִמַּפְרִיסֵ֖י הַפַּרְסָ֑ה אֶֽת־הַ֠גָּמָל כִּֽי־מַעֲלֵ֨ה גֵרָ֜ה ה֗וּא וּפַרְסָה֙ אֵינֶ֣נּוּ מַפְרִ֔יס טָמֵ֥א ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם׃Lv 11:4
¶“‘Nevertheless these you shall not eat of those that chew the cud, or of those who part the hoof: the camel, because he chews the cud but doesn’t have a parted hoof, he is unclean to you.
5Lv 11:55καὶ τὸν δασύποδα ὅτι ἀνάγει μηρυκισμὸν τοῦτο καὶ ὁπλὴν οὐ διχηλεῖ ἀκάθαρτον τοῦτο ὑμῖνLv 11:5
And the rabbit, because it chews the cud, but does not divide the hoof, this is unclean to you.
Lv 11:5And Tthe coney hare, because he this one chews the cud[a] but and doesn’t have a parted cleave (the) hoof,; he this one is unclean to you.
———
a Hares and rabbits mimic the chewing behavior of ruminates and pseudoruminants, making it look like they chew cud. But the point here is not that they do "chew the cud," but that chewing the cud is not enough to qualify as clean. So even if they mistakenly look like they chew the cud, they're unclean because they are not cloven hoofed. (Incidently, hares, rabbits, and other lagomorphs do in fact rechew their food; but they cannot regurgitate, so they excrete and reingest cecotropes in a process called refection. Like cud, cecotropes are partially digested food.)
[translations][edit][history]
Last Edited: 2024-04-11 Editors: 1
Lv 11:5Lv 11:5וְאֶת־הַשָּׁפָ֗ן כִּֽי־מַעֲלֵ֤ה גֵרָה֙ ה֔וּא וּפַרְסָ֖ה לֹ֣א יַפְרִ֑יס טָמֵ֥א ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם׃Lv 11:5
The coney, because he chews the cud but doesn’t have a parted hoof, he is unclean to you.
6Lv 11:66καὶ τὸν χοιρογρύλλιον ὅτι ἀνάγει μηρυκισμὸν τοῦτο καὶ ὁπλὴν οὐ διχηλεῖ ἀκάθαρτον τοῦτο ὑμῖνLv 11:6
And the hare, because it does not chew the cud, and does not divide the hoof, this is unclean to you.
Lv 11:6And Tthe hare rock hyrax,[a] because she this one chews the cud[b] but and doesn’t part cleave (the) hoof,; she this one is unclean to you.
———
a Gk. χοιρογρύλλιον.
b Hyraxes, like hares and rabbits, mimic the chewing behavior of ruminants and pseudoruminants, making it look like they chew cud. (Their madibular motions are similar to chewing cud, but the hyrax is physically incapable of regurgitation.) But the point again is not that they do "chew the cud," but that chewing the cud is not enough to qualify as clean. So even if they mistakenly look like they chew the cud, they're unclean because they are not cloven hoofed. (Unlike hares and rabbits, hyraxes do not redigest their food, neither cud nor cecotrope.)
[translations][edit][history]
Last Edited: 2024-04-11 Editors: 1
Lv 11:6Lv 11:6וְאֶת־הָאַרְנֶ֗בֶת כִּֽי־מַעֲלַ֤ת גֵּרָה֙ הִ֔וא וּפַרְסָ֖ה לֹ֣א הִפְרִ֑יסָה טְמֵאָ֥ה הִ֖וא לָכֶֽם׃Lv 11:6
The hare, because she chews the cud but doesn’t part the hoof, she is unclean to you.
7Lv 11:77καὶ τὸν ὗν ὅτι διχηλεῖ ὁπλὴν τοῦτο καὶ ὀνυχίζει ὄνυχας ὁπλῆς καὶ τοῦτο οὐκ ἀνάγει μηρυκισμόν ἀκάθαρτον τοῦτο ὑμῖνLv 11:7
And the swine, because this animal divides the hoof, and makes claws of the hoof, and it does not chew the cud, is unclean to you.
Lv 11:7And Tthe pig swine, because he this one has a split cleaves (the) hoof, and is cloven-footed forms (from it) claws of (the) hoof,[a] but doesn’t chew the cud,; he this one is unclean to you.
———
a Gk. ὀνυχίζει ὄνυχας ὁπλῆς. Not certain if there is a difference in nuance between ὀνυχιζότων ὀνυχιστῆρας and ὀνυχίζει ὄνυχας ὁπλῆς.
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Last Edited: 2024-04-09 Editors: 1
Lv 11:7Lv 11:7וְאֶת־הַ֠חֲזִיר כִּֽי־מַפְרִ֨יס פַּרְסָ֜ה ה֗וּא וְשֹׁסַ֥ע שֶׁ֙סַע֙ פַּרְסָ֔ה וְה֖וּא גֵּרָ֣ה לֹֽא־יִגָּ֑ר טָמֵ֥א ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם׃Lv 11:7
The pig, because he has a split hoof, and is cloven-footed, but doesn’t chew the cud, he is unclean to you.
8Lv 11:88ἀπὸ τῶν κρεῶν αὐτῶν οὐ φάγεσθε καὶ τῶν θνησιμαίων αὐτῶν οὐχ ἅψεσθε ἀκάθαρτα ταῦτα ὑμῖνLv 11:8
Ye shall not eat of their flesh, and ye shall not touch their carcases; these are unclean to you.
Lv 11:8Of From their flesh meat you shall will not eat, and their carcasses you shall will not touch; they these are unclean to you.
[translations][edit][history]
Last Edited: 2024-04-08 Editors: 1
Lv 11:8Lv 11:8מִבְּשָׂרָם֙ לֹ֣א תֹאכֵ֔לוּ וּבְנִבְלָתָ֖ם לֹ֣א תִגָּ֑עוּ טְמֵאִ֥ים הֵ֖ם לָכֶֽם׃Lv 11:8
Of their flesh you shall not eat, and their carcasses you shall not touch; they are unclean to you.
9Lv 11:99καὶ ταῦτα ἃ φάγεσθε ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν ἐν τοῖς ὕδασιν πάντα ὅσα ἐστὶν αὐτοῖς πτερύγια καὶ λεπίδες ἐν τοῖς ὕδασιν καὶ ἐν ταῖς θαλάσσαις καὶ ἐν τοῖς χειμάρροις ταῦτα φάγεσθεLv 11:9
And these are what ye shall eat of all that are in the waters: all things that have fins and scales in the waters, and in the seas, and in the brooks, these ye shall eat.
Lv 11:9
¶“‘These you may eat of all that are in the waters: whatever has fins and scales in the waters, in the seas, and in the rivers, that you may eat.
Lv 11:9Lv 11:9אֶת־זֶה֙ תֹּֽאכְל֔וּ מִכֹּ֖ל אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּמָּ֑יִם כֹּ֣ל אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ֩ סְנַפִּ֨יר וְקַשְׂקֶ֜שֶׂת בַּמַּ֗יִם בַּיַּמִּ֛ים וּבַנְּחָלִ֖ים אֹתָ֥ם תֹּאכֵֽלוּ׃Lv 11:9
¶“‘These you may eat of all that are in the waters: whatever has fins and scales in the waters, in the seas, and in the rivers, that you may eat.
10Lv 11:1010καὶ πάντα ὅσα οὐκ ἔστιν αὐτοῖς πτερύγια οὐδὲ λεπίδες ἐν τῷ ὕδατι ἢ ἐν ταῖς θαλάσσαις καὶ ἐν τοῖς χειμάρροις ἀπὸ πάντων ὧν ἐρεύγεται τὰ ὕδατα καὶ ἀπὸ πάσης ψυχῆς ζώσης τῆς ἐν τῷ ὕδατι βδέλυγμά ἐστινLv 11:10
And all things which have not fins or scales in the water, or in the seas, and in the brooks, of all which the waters produce, and of every soul living in the water, are an abomination; and they shall be abominations to you.
Lv 11:10
All that don’t have fins and scales in the seas, and in the rivers, of all that move in the waters, and of all the living creatures that are in the waters, they are an abomination to you,
Lv 11:10Lv 11:10וְכֹל֩ אֲשֶׁ֨ר אֵֽין־ל֜וֹ סְנַפִּ֣יר וְקַשְׂקֶ֗שֶׂת בַּיַּמִּים֙ וּבַנְּחָלִ֔ים מִכֹּל֙ שֶׁ֣רֶץ הַמַּ֔יִם וּמִכֹּ֛ל נֶ֥פֶשׁ הַחַיָּ֖ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר בַּמָּ֑יִם שֶׁ֥קֶץ הֵ֖ם לָכֶֽם׃Lv 11:10
All that don’t have fins and scales in the seas, and in the rivers, of all that move in the waters, and of all the living creatures that are in the waters, they are an abomination to you,
11Lv 11:1111καὶ βδελύγματα ἔσονται ὑμῖν ἀπὸ τῶν κρεῶν αὐτῶν οὐκ ἔδεσθε καὶ τὰ θνησιμαῖα αὐτῶν βδελύξεσθεLv 11:11
Ye shall not eat of their flesh, and ye shall abhor their carcases.
Lv 11:11
and you detest them. You shall not eat of their flesh, and you shall detest their carcasses.
Lv 11:11Lv 11:11וְשֶׁ֖קֶץ יִהְי֣וּ לָכֶ֑ם מִבְּשָׂרָם֙ לֹ֣א תֹאכֵ֔לוּ וְאֶת־נִבְלָתָ֖ם תְּשַׁקֵּֽצוּ׃Lv 11:11
and you detest them. You shall not eat of their flesh, and you shall detest their carcasses.
12Lv 11:1212καὶ πάντα ὅσα οὐκ ἔστιν αὐτοῖς πτερύγια καὶ λεπίδες τῶν ἐν τῷ ὕδατι βδέλυγμα τοῦτό ἐστιν ὑμῖνLv 11:12
And all things that have not fins or scales of those that are in the waters, these are an abomination to you.
Lv 11:12
Whatever has no fins nor scales in the waters, that is an abomination to you.
Lv 11:12Lv 11:12כֹּ֣ל אֲשֶׁ֥ר אֵֽין־ל֛וֹ סְנַפִּ֥יר וְקַשְׂקֶ֖שֶׂת בַּמָּ֑יִם שֶׁ֥קֶץ ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם׃Lv 11:12
Whatever has no fins nor scales in the waters, that is an abomination to you.
13Lv 11:1313καὶ ταῦτα βδελύξεσθε ἀπὸ τῶν πετεινῶν καὶ οὐ βρωθήσεται βδέλυγμά ἐστιν τὸν ἀετὸν καὶ τὸν γρύπα καὶ τὸν ἁλιαίετονLv 11:13
And these are the things which ye shall abhor of birds, and they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle and the ossifrage, and the sea-eagle.
Lv 11:13¶“‘These you shall detest among the birds flying creatures;[a] they shall not be eaten,[b] they are an abomination: the eagle, and the vulture ossifrage, and the black vulture osprey,
———
a Gk. πετεινός, flying, vs. πτερωτός, winged.
b Leviticus doesn't explicitly permit the eating of clean birds, but Deuteronomy does. Dt. 14:11 permits the eating of clean birds (ὄρνεον καθαρόν) and Dt. 14:20 permits the eating of clean flying things (πετεινὸν καθαρόν). Clean flying things only includes birds since bats and flying insects are explicitly unclean in Dt. 14:18, 19 and Lv. 11:19. Clean birds are not defined; rather both Dt. and Lv. give examples of unclean birds.
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Last Edited: 2024-04-10 Editors: 1
Lv 11:13Lv 11:13וְאֶת־אֵ֙לֶּה֙ תְּשַׁקְּצ֣וּ מִן־הָע֔וֹף לֹ֥א יֵאָכְל֖וּ שֶׁ֣קֶץ הֵ֑ם אֶת־הַנֶּ֙שֶׁר֙ וְאֶת־הַפֶּ֔רֶס וְאֵ֖ת הָעָזְנִיָּֽה׃Lv 11:13
¶“‘These you shall detest among the birds; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and the vulture, and the black vulture,
14Lv 11:1414καὶ τὸν γύπα καὶ ἰκτῖνα καὶ τὰ ὅμοια αὐτῷLv 11:14
And the vulture, and the kite, and the like to it;
Lv 11:14and the vulture, and the red kite, any kind of black kite and (what is) like to it,;
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Last Edited: 2024-04-06 Editors: 1
Lv 11:14Lv 11:14וְאֶת־הַ֨דָּאָ֔ה וְאֶת־הָאַיָּ֖ה לְמִינָֽהּ׃Lv 11:14
and the red kite, any kind of black kite,
15Lv 11:1515καὶ κόρακα καὶ τὰ ὅμοια αὐτῷLv 11:15
and the sparrow, and the owl, and the sea-mew, and the like to it:
Lv 11:15and any kind of raven and (what is) like to it,;
[translations][edit][history]
Last Edited: 2024-04-06 Editors: 1
Lv 11:15Lv 11:15אֵ֥ת כָּל־עֹרֵ֖ב לְמִינֽוֹ׃Lv 11:15
any kind of raven,
16Lv 11:1616καὶ στρουθὸν καὶ γλαῦκα καὶ λάρον καὶ τὰ ὅμοια αὐτῷ καὶ ἱέρακα καὶ τὰ ὅμοια αὐτῷLv 11:16
and every raven, and the birds like it, and the hawk and his like,
Lv 11:16andthe horned owl sparrow, and the screech (day) owl,[a] and the gull, any kind of hawk and (what is) like to it,; and hawk and (what is) like to it;
———
a Gk. γλαύξ, the little owl, or Athenian owl; perhaps like the burrowing owl, which is diurnal (active during the day) during breeding season.
[translations][edit][history]
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Lv 11:16Lv 11:16וְאֵת֙ בַּ֣ת הַֽיַּעֲנָ֔ה וְאֶת־הַתַּחְמָ֖ס וְאֶת־הַשָּׁ֑חַף וְאֶת־הַנֵּ֖ץ לְמִינֵֽהוּ׃Lv 11:16
the horned owl, the screech owl, and the gull, any kind of hawk,
17Lv 11:1717καὶ νυκτικόρακα καὶ καταρράκτην καὶ ἶβινLv 11:17
and the night-raven and the cormorant and the stork,
Lv 11:17andthe little (night) owl,[a] and the cormorant, and the great owl ibis,
———
a Gk. νυκτικόραξ, owl; lit. "night-raven."
[translations][edit][history]
Last Edited: 2024-04-06 Editors: 1
Lv 11:17Lv 11:17וְאֶת־הַכּ֥וֹס וְאֶת־הַשָּׁלָ֖ךְ וְאֶת־הַיַּנְשֽׁוּף׃Lv 11:17
the little owl, the cormorant, the great owl,
18Lv 11:1818καὶ πορφυρίωνα καὶ πελεκᾶνα καὶ κύκνονLv 11:18
and the red-bill, and the pelican, and swan,
Lv 11:18andthe white owl purple swamp-hen, and the desert owl pelican, and the osprey swan,
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Last Edited: 2024-04-06 Editors: 1
Lv 11:18Lv 11:18וְאֶת־הַתִּנְשֶׁ֥מֶת וְאֶת־הַקָּאָ֖ת וְאֶת־הָרָחָֽם׃Lv 11:18
the white owl, the desert owl, the osprey,
19Lv 11:1919καὶ γλαῦκα καὶ ἐρωδιὸν καὶ χαραδριὸν καὶ τὰ ὅμοια αὐτῷ καὶ ἔποπα καὶ νυκτερίδαLv 11:19
and the heron, and the lapwing, and the like to it, and the hoopoe and the bat.
Lv 11:19andthe stork (day) owl,[a] and any kind of heron, and charadius, and (what is) like to it; and the hoopoe, and the bat.
———
a Gk. γλαύξ (duplicate of 11:16).
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Last Edited: 2024-04-06 Editors: 1
Lv 11:19Lv 11:19וְאֵת֙ הַחֲסִידָ֔ה הָאֲנָפָ֖ה לְמִינָ֑הּ וְאֶת־הַדּוּכִיפַ֖ת וְאֶת־הָעֲטַלֵּֽף׃Lv 11:19
the stork, any kind of heron, the hoopoe, and the bat.
20Lv 11:2020καὶ πάντα τὰ ἑρπετὰ τῶν πετεινῶν ἃ πορεύεται ἐπὶ τέσσαρα βδελύγματά ἐστιν ὑμῖνLv 11:20
And all winged creatures that creep, which go upon four feet, are abominations to you.
Lv 11:20“‘And all the flying insects[a] that walk on all fours (feet)[b][c] are an abominations to you.[d]
———
a Gk. ἐρπετόν. Ἐρπετόν includes invertebrates and small, "crawling" vertebrates [but not bats by virtue of being grouped separately, along with birds, in 11:19]. "Winged" (and more narrowly "flying") narrows ἐρπετόν down to insects. The only winged invertebrates are insects.
b The insects being identified here as walking on four feet are additionally identifed with another two legs for leaping in the next verse, i.e., six legs total. Winged insects that walk on four feet include locusts—which jump with their hind legs and walk on their mid- and forelegs—and mantises and Nymphalidae butterflies—which conversely walk on their mid- and hind legs, not their forelegs.
c There are no four-footed invertebrates; the only winged invertebrates are insects, which have six legs. Key to not misconstruing "walking on four feet" with having only four feet, is that this verse does not stand alone, separate from 11:21 and 11:22. This verse should not be read as expressly prohibiting only flying insects that walk on four feet, and by omission no others; all invertebrates are prohibited, regardless of wings and legs.
d Leviticus doesn't explicitly prohibit the eating of flying insects, but Dt. 14:19 does: All winged [flying] animals that creep are unclean to you; ye shall not eat of them [Brenton]. (Non-flying invertebrates and small, "crawling" vertebrates are prohibited in Lv. 11:29.) Lv. 11:20-22 defines an exception for four types of locust to the general prohibition in Deuteronomy: within the prohibition against all flying invertebrates, there is a subset of flying, six-legged insects that walk on four feet [which incl. mantises and Nymphalidae butterflies], which is still prohibited as a whole; but within this subset is another subset that have an additional pair of legs for leaping [which excl. mantises and Nymphalidae butterflies]; within this subset are four types of locusts that are permitted.
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Last Edited: 2024-04-09 Editors: 1
Lv 11:20Lv 11:20כֹּ֚ל שֶׁ֣רֶץ הָע֔וֹף הַהֹלֵ֖ךְ עַל־אַרְבַּ֑ע שֶׁ֥קֶץ ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם׃ ס Lv 11:20
¶“‘All flying insects that walk on all fours are an abomination to you.
21Lv 11:2121ἀλλὰ ταῦτα φάγεσθε ἀπὸ τῶν ἑρπετῶν τῶν πετεινῶν ἃ πορεύεται ἐπὶ τέσσαρα ἃ ἔχει σκέλη ἀνώτερον τῶν ποδῶν αὐτοῦ πηδᾶν ἐν αὐτοῖς ἐπὶ τῆς γῆςLv 11:21
But these ye shall eat of the creeping winged animals, which go upon four feet, which have legs above their feet, to leap with on the earth.
Lv 11:21Yet But these you may will eat these: of all from among the winged flying creeping things insects that go walk on all fours (feet),: (those) which that have legs above their feet,[a] with which to hop leap with them on the earth.
———
a That is, the prominent hind legs on a locust, grasshopper, or cricket. Grasshoppers and crickets, though, are excluded from permitted insects by the further narrowing in 11:22 to specifically four types of locusts.
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Last Edited: 2024-04-09 Editors: 1
Lv 11:21Lv 11:21אַ֤ךְ אֶת־זֶה֙ תֹּֽאכְל֔וּ מִכֹּל֙ שֶׁ֣רֶץ הָע֔וֹף הַהֹלֵ֖ךְ עַל־אַרְבַּ֑ע אֲשֶׁר־‏{ לא ל֤וֹ }‏ כְרָעַ֙יִם֙ מִמַּ֣עַל לְרַגְלָ֔יו לְנַתֵּ֥ר בָּהֵ֖ן עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃
———
Ketib: לא ⬪ Qere: ל֤וֹ
Lv 11:21
Yet you may eat these: of all winged creeping things that go on all fours, which have legs above their feet, with which to hop on the earth.
22Lv 11:2222καὶ ταῦτα φάγεσθε ἀπ’ αὐτῶν τὸν βροῦχον καὶ τὰ ὅμοια αὐτῷ καὶ τὸν ἀττάκην καὶ τὰ ὅμοια αὐτῷ καὶ τὴν ἀκρίδα καὶ τὰ ὅμοια αὐτῇ καὶ τὸν ὀφιομάχην καὶ τὰ ὅμοια αὐτῷLv 11:22
And these of them ye shall eat: the caterpillar and his like, and the attacus and his like, and the cantharus and his like, and the locust and his like.
Lv 11:22Even of And these you may will eat from among them: any kind of the locust arbeh[a][b] and (what is) like to it, and any kind of the katydid sol'am[c] and (what is) like to it, and any kind of the cricket hargol[d] and (what is) like to it, and any kind of the grasshopper hagab[e] and (what is) like to it.[f][g][h]
———
a arbeh, Hb. ארבה ʾrbh, translated as Gk. ἀκρίς in Ex. 10:4, 12-14, 19, is the word for locust in the plague of locusts, and the word for locust in the narrative of John the Baptist in Mt. 3:4.
b Joel 1:4 and 2:25 has ארבה, great locust [ἀκρίς, great locust]; ילק, young locust [βροῦχος, grasshopper]; חסיל, other locust [ἐρυσίβη, rust]; and גזם, locust swarm [κάμπη, caterpillar or silkworm].
c Gk. βροῦχος. For Hb. ארבה ʾrbh [Wikipedia: arbeh -> brouchos]. Per the Suda On Line, locust; [meaning] the caterpillar; per LSJ, locust, or its wingless larva. Usually translates חסיל or ילק, grasshopper. (Arbeh also occurs: Ex. 10:4 [arkis], 12-14 [akris], 19 [akris]; Dt. 28:38 [akris]; Jdg. 6:5 [akris], 7:12 [akris]; 1 Kgs. 8:37 (LXX 3 Kgs. 8:37) [brouchos and erusibh]; 2 Chr. 6:28 [akris and brouchos]; Jb. 39:20 [no ref to locust in LXX)] Ps. 78:46 [erusibh and arkis], 105:34 [akris and brouchos], 109:23 [arkis]; Prv 30:27 [akris]; Jer. 46:23 (LXX 26:23) [akris]; Jl.1:4 [the akris, the brouchos, and erusibh][, 2:25 [akris; brouchos, erusibh, and kamph] and Na. 3:15, 17 [akris and brouchos].)
d Gk. ἀττάκης. For Hb. סלעם slʿm [Wikipedia: sol'am -> attacos]. Per LSJ, a kind of locust. Occurs only here in LXX. (Sol'am only occurs here.)
e Gk. ἀκρίς. For Hb. חרגל ḥrgl [Wikipedia: hargol -> ophiomchos]. Per the Suda On Line, locust, cricket, grasshopper; per LSJ, grasshopper, locust, cricket. (Hargol only occurs here.)
f Gk. ὀφιομάχης. For Hb. חגב ḥgb [Wikipedia: hagab -> akrida]. Per the Suda On Line, snake-fighter; a kind of locust, with no wings; per LSJ, adj. fighting with serpents; as Subst., a kind of locust, and the ichneumon [wasp]. Only occurs here in LXX. (Hagab also occurs: Nm. 13:34 (LXX 13:33); 2 Chr. 7:13; Ecc. 12:5; and Is. 40:22; in all cases translated as ἀκρις.)
g Per The Biblical Museum of Natural History: These you may eat: the arbeh after its kind, and the sela'am after its kind, and the chargol after its kind, and the chagav after its kind. ...The Torah lists four types of kosher grasshoppers (and adds according to its kind after each, which the Talmud explains to include four further kinds). It's difficult to definitively translate the four names which appear here. But consider the following. Although there are over ten thousand species of grasshoppers, only a few dozen are locusts – i.e., grasshoppers that form swarms. And of the few dozen species of locusts, only four occur in Biblical lands! And of these four, by far the most common swarming locust is the desert locust, Schistocercia gregaria, which occasionally appears in swarms in Egypt and Israel even today... Second place is taken by the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, while the Egyptian locust and Moroccan locust come in a distant third and fourth place.
h New Jewish Publication Society [NJPS] translation: Of these you may eat the following: locusts of every variety; all varieties of bald locust; crickets of every variety; and all varieties of grasshopper.
i Complete Jewish Bible [CJB] translation: From this [locust] category, you may eat the following: The red locust after its species, the yellow locust after its species, the spotted gray locus after its species and the white locust after its species.
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Last Edited: 2024-04-11 Editors: 1
Lv 11:22Lv 11:22אֶת־אֵ֤לֶּה מֵהֶם֙ תֹּאכֵ֔לוּ אֶת־הָֽאַרְבֶּ֣ה לְמִינ֔וֹ וְאֶת־הַסָּלְעָ֖ם לְמִינֵ֑הוּ וְאֶת־הַחַרְגֹּ֣ל לְמִינֵ֔הוּ וְאֶת־הֶחָגָ֖ב לְמִינֵֽהוּ׃Lv 11:22
Even of these you may eat: any kind of locust, any kind of katydid, any kind of cricket, and any kind of grasshopper.
23Lv 11:2323πᾶν ἑρπετὸν ἀπὸ τῶν πετεινῶν οἷς ἐστιν τέσσαρες πόδες βδέλυγμά ἐστιν ὑμῖνLv 11:23
Every creeping thing from among the birds, which has four feet, is an abomination to you.
Lv 11:23But all Every winged flying creeping things insect which have is four feet-foot(ed), are is an abomination to you.
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Last Edited: 2024-04-09 Editors: 1
Lv 11:23Lv 11:23וְכֹל֙ שֶׁ֣רֶץ הָע֔וֹף אֲשֶׁר־ל֖וֹ אַרְבַּ֣ע רַגְלָ֑יִם שֶׁ֥קֶץ ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם׃Lv 11:23
But all winged creeping things which have four feet, are an abomination to you.
24Lv 11:2424καὶ ἐν τούτοις μιανθήσεσθε πᾶς ὁ ἁπτόμενος τῶν θνησιμαίων αὐτῶν ἀκάθαρτος ἔσται ἕως ἑσπέραςLv 11:24
And by these ye shall be defiled; every one that touches their carcases shall be unclean till the evening.
Lv 11:24
¶“‘By these you will become unclean: whoever touches the carcass of them shall be unclean until the evening.
Lv 11:24Lv 11:24וּלְאֵ֖לֶּה תִּטַּמָּ֑אוּ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵ֥עַ בְּנִבְלָתָ֖ם יִטְמָ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב׃Lv 11:24
¶“‘By these you will become unclean: whoever touches the carcass of them shall be unclean until the evening.
25Lv 11:2525καὶ πᾶς ὁ αἴρων τῶν θνησιμαίων αὐτῶν πλυνεῖ τὰ ἱμάτια καὶ ἀκάθαρτος ἔσται ἕως ἑσπέραςLv 11:25
And every one that takes of their dead bodies shall wash his garments, and shall be unclean till the evening.
Lv 11:25
Whoever carries any part of their carcass shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the evening.
Lv 11:25Lv 11:25וְכָל־הַנֹּשֵׂ֖א מִנִּבְלָתָ֑ם יְכַבֵּ֥ס בְּגָדָ֖יו וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב׃Lv 11:25
Whoever carries any part of their carcass shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the evening.
26Lv 11:2626ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς κτήνεσιν ὅ ἐστιν διχηλοῦν ὁπλὴν καὶ ὀνυχιστῆρας ὀνυχίζει καὶ μηρυκισμὸν οὐ μαρυκᾶται ἀκάθαρτα ἔσονται ὑμῖν πᾶς ὁ ἁπτόμενος τῶν θνησιμαίων αὐτῶν ἀκάθαρτος ἔσται ἕως ἑσπέραςLv 11:26
And whichever among the beasts divides the hoof and makes claws, and does not chew the cud, shall be unclean to you; every one that touches their dead bodies shall be unclean till evening.
Lv 11:26¶“‘Among Every all the animals which that are parts cleaving (the) hoof, and is not cloven-footed forming (from it) small, claw-like hooves, and nor not chews chewing the cud,[a][b] is will be unclean to you. Everyone who touches them their carcasses shall will be unclean until evening.
———
a Gk. μηρυκισμὸν μαρυκᾶται, vs. ἀνάγει μηρυκισμὸν in 11:3-7.
b Repeat of 11:7, in which the swine is given as an example.
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Last Edited: 2024-04-10 Editors: 1
Lv 11:26Lv 11:26לְֽכָל־הַבְּהֵמָ֡ה אֲשֶׁ֣ר הִוא֩ מַפְרֶ֨סֶת פַּרְסָ֜ה וְשֶׁ֣סַע ׀ אֵינֶ֣נָּה שֹׁסַ֗עַת וְגֵרָה֙ אֵינֶ֣נָּה מַעֲלָ֔ה טְמֵאִ֥ים הֵ֖ם לָכֶ֑ם כָּל־הַנֹּגֵ֥עַ בָּהֶ֖ם יִטְמָֽא׃Lv 11:26
¶“‘Every animal which parts the hoof, and is not cloven-footed, nor chews the cud, is unclean to you. Everyone who touches them shall be unclean.
27Lv 11:2727καὶ πᾶς ὃς πορεύεται ἐπὶ χειρῶν ἐν πᾶσι τοῖς θηρίοις ἃ πορεύεται ἐπὶ τέσσαρα ἀκάθαρτα ἔσται ὑμῖν πᾶς ὁ ἁπτόμενος τῶν θνησιμαίων αὐτῶν ἀκάθαρτος ἔσται ἕως ἑσπέραςLv 11:27
And every one among all the wild beasts that moves upon its fore feet, which goes on all four, is unclean to you; every one that touches their dead bodies shall be unclean till evening.
Lv 11:27
Whatever goes on its paws, among all animals that go on all fours, they are unclean to you. Whoever touches their carcass shall be unclean until the evening.
Lv 11:27Lv 11:27וְכֹ֣ל ׀ הוֹלֵ֣ךְ עַל־כַּפָּ֗יו בְּכָל־הַֽחַיָּה֙ הַהֹלֶ֣כֶת עַל־אַרְבַּ֔ע טְמֵאִ֥ים הֵ֖ם לָכֶ֑ם כָּל־הַנֹּגֵ֥עַ בְּנִבְלָתָ֖ם יִטְמָ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב׃Lv 11:27
Whatever goes on its paws, among all animals that go on all fours, they are unclean to you. Whoever touches their carcass shall be unclean until the evening.
28Lv 11:2828καὶ ὁ αἴρων τῶν θνησιμαίων αὐτῶν πλυνεῖ τὰ ἱμάτια καὶ ἀκάθαρτος ἔσται ἕως ἑσπέρας ἀκάθαρτα ταῦτα ὑμῖν ἐστινLv 11:28
And he that takes of their dead bodies shall wash his garments, and shall be unclean till evening: these are unclean to you.
Lv 11:28
He who carries their carcass shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the evening. They are unclean to you.
Lv 11:28Lv 11:28וְהַנֹּשֵׂא֙ אֶת־נִבְלָתָ֔ם יְכַבֵּ֥ס בְּגָדָ֖יו וְטָמֵ֣א עַד־הָעָ֑רֶב טְמֵאִ֥ים הֵ֖מָּה לָכֶֽם׃ ס Lv 11:28
He who carries their carcass shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the evening. They are unclean to you.
29Lv 11:2929καὶ ταῦτα ὑμῖν ἀκάθαρτα ἀπὸ τῶν ἑρπετῶν τῶν ἑρπόντων ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἡ γαλῆ καὶ ὁ μῦς καὶ ὁ κροκόδειλος ὁ χερσαῖοςLv 11:29
And these are unclean to you of reptiles upon the earth, the weasel, and the mouse, and the lizard,
Lv 11:29
¶“‘These are they which are unclean to you among the creeping things that creep on the earth: the weasel, the rat, any kind of great lizard,
Lv 11:29Lv 11:29וְזֶ֤ה לָכֶם֙ הַטָּמֵ֔א בַּשֶּׁ֖רֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵ֣ץ עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ הַחֹ֥לֶד וְהָעַכְבָּ֖ר וְהַצָּ֥ב לְמִינֵֽהוּ׃Lv 11:29
¶“‘These are they which are unclean to you among the creeping things that creep on the earth: the weasel, the rat, any kind of great lizard,
30Lv 11:3030μυγαλῆ καὶ χαμαιλέων καὶ καλαβώτης καὶ σαύρα καὶ ἀσπάλαξLv 11:30
the ferret, and the chameleon, and the evet, and the newt, and the mole.
Lv 11:30
the gecko, and the monitor lizard, the wall lizard, the skink, and the chameleon.
Lv 11:30Lv 11:30וְהָאֲנָקָ֥ה וְהַכֹּ֖חַ וְהַלְּטָאָ֑ה וְהַחֹ֖מֶט וְהַתִּנְשָֽׁמֶת׃Lv 11:30
the gecko, and the monitor lizard, the wall lizard, the skink, and the chameleon.
31Lv 11:3131ταῦτα ἀκάθαρτα ὑμῖν ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν ἑρπετῶν τῶν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς πᾶς ὁ ἁπτόμενος αὐτῶν τεθνηκότων ἀκάθαρτος ἔσται ἕως ἑσπέραςLv 11:31
These are unclean to you of all the reptiles which are on the earth; every one who touches their carcases shall be unclean till evening.
Lv 11:31
These are they which are unclean to you among all that creep. Whoever touches them when they are dead, shall be unclean until the evening.
Lv 11:31Lv 11:31אֵ֛לֶּה הַטְּמֵאִ֥ים לָכֶ֖ם בְּכָל־הַשָּׁ֑רֶץ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵ֧עַ בָּהֶ֛ם בְּמֹתָ֖ם יִטְמָ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב׃Lv 11:31
These are they which are unclean to you among all that creep. Whoever touches them when they are dead, shall be unclean until the evening.
32Lv 11:3232καὶ πᾶν ἐφ’ ὃ ἂν ἐπιπέσῃ ἀπ’ αὐτῶν τεθνηκότων αὐτῶν ἀκάθαρτον ἔσται ἀπὸ παντὸς σκεύους ξυλίνου ἢ ἱματίου ἢ δέρματος ἢ σάκκου πᾶν σκεῦος ὃ ἐὰν ποιηθῇ ἔργον ἐν αὐτῷ εἰς ὕδωρ βαφήσεται καὶ ἀκάθαρτον ἔσται ἕως ἑσπέρας καὶ καθαρὸν ἔσταιLv 11:32
And on whatsoever one of their dead bodies shall fall it shall be unclean; whatever wooden vessel, or garment, or skin, or sack it may be, every vessel in which work should be done, shall be dipped in water, and shall be unclean till evening; and then it shall be clean.
Lv 11:32
On whatever any of them falls when they are dead, it shall be unclean; whether it is any vessel of wood, or clothing, or skin, or sack, whatever vessel it is, with which any work is done, it must be put into water, and it shall be unclean until the evening; then it will be clean.
Lv 11:32Lv 11:32וְכֹ֣ל אֲשֶׁר־יִפֹּל־עָלָיו֩ מֵהֶ֨ם ׀ בְּמֹתָ֜ם יִטְמָ֗א מִכָּל־כְּלִי־עֵץ֙ א֣וֹ בֶ֤גֶד אוֹ־עוֹר֙ א֣וֹ שָׂ֔ק כָּל־כְּלִ֕י אֲשֶׁר־יֵעָשֶׂ֥ה מְלָאכָ֖ה בָּהֶ֑ם בַּמַּ֧יִם יוּבָ֛א וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעֶ֖רֶב וְטָהֵֽר׃Lv 11:32
On whatever any of them falls when they are dead, it shall be unclean; whether it is any vessel of wood, or clothing, or skin, or sack, whatever vessel it is, with which any work is done, it must be put into water, and it shall be unclean until the evening; then it will be clean.
33Lv 11:3333καὶ πᾶν σκεῦος ὀστράκινον εἰς ὃ ἐὰν πέσῃ ἀπὸ τούτων ἔνδον ὅσα ἐὰν ἔνδον ᾖ ἀκάθαρτα ἔσται καὶ αὐτὸ συντριβήσεταιLv 11:33
And every earthen vessel into which one of these things shall fall, whatsoever is inside it, shall be unclean, and it shall be broken.
Lv 11:33
Every earthen vessel, into which any of them falls, all that is in it shall be unclean, and you shall break it.
Lv 11:33Lv 11:33וְכָל־כְּלִי־חֶ֔רֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר־יִפֹּ֥ל מֵהֶ֖ם אֶל־תּוֹכ֑וֹ כֹּ֣ל אֲשֶׁ֧ר בְּתוֹכ֛וֹ יִטְמָ֖א וְאֹת֥וֹ תִשְׁבֹּֽרוּ׃Lv 11:33
Every earthen vessel, into which any of them falls, all that is in it shall be unclean, and you shall break it.
34Lv 11:3434καὶ πᾶν βρῶμα ὃ ἔσθεται εἰς ὃ ἐὰν ἐπέλθῃ ἐπ’ αὐτὸ ὕδωρ ἀκάθαρτον ἔσται καὶ πᾶν ποτόν ὃ πίνεται ἐν παντὶ ἀγγείῳ ἀκάθαρτον ἔσταιLv 11:34
And all food that is eaten, on which water shall come from such a vessel, shall be unclean; and every beverage which is drunk in any such vessel, shall be unclean.
Lv 11:34
All food which may be eaten, that on which water comes, shall be unclean; and all drink that may be drunk in every such vessel shall be unclean.
Lv 11:34Lv 11:34מִכָּל־הָאֹ֜כֶל אֲשֶׁ֣ר יֵאָכֵ֗ל אֲשֶׁ֨ר יָב֥וֹא עָלָ֛יו מַ֖יִם יִטְמָ֑א וְכָל־מַשְׁקֶה֙ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִשָּׁתֶ֔ה בְּכָל־כְּלִ֖י יִטְמָֽא׃Lv 11:34
All food which may be eaten, that on which water comes, shall be unclean; and all drink that may be drunk in every such vessel shall be unclean.
35Lv 11:3535καὶ πᾶν ὃ ἐὰν πέσῃ ἀπὸ τῶν θνησιμαίων αὐτῶν ἐπ’ αὐτό ἀκάθαρτον ἔσται κλίβανοι καὶ κυθρόποδες καθαιρεθήσονται ἀκάθαρτα ταῦτά ἐστιν καὶ ἀκάθαρτα ταῦτα ὑμῖν ἔσονταιLv 11:35
And every thing on which there shall fall of their dead bodies shall be unclean; ovens and stands for jars shall be broken down: these are unclean, and they shall be unclean to you.
Lv 11:35
Everything whereupon part of their carcass falls shall be unclean; whether oven, or range for pots, it shall be broken in pieces: they are unclean, and shall be unclean to you.
Lv 11:35Lv 11:35וְ֠כֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִפֹּ֨ל מִנִּבְלָתָ֥ם ׀ עָלָיו֮ יִטְמָא֒ תַּנּ֧וּר וְכִירַ֛יִם יֻתָּ֖ץ טְמֵאִ֣ים הֵ֑ם וּטְמֵאִ֖ים יִהְי֥וּ לָכֶֽם׃Lv 11:35
Everything whereupon part of their carcass falls shall be unclean; whether oven, or range for pots, it shall be broken in pieces: they are unclean, and shall be unclean to you.
36Lv 11:3636πλὴν πηγῶν ὑδάτων καὶ λάκκου καὶ συναγωγῆς ὕδατος ἔσται καθαρόν ὁ δὲ ἁπτόμενος τῶν θνησιμαίων αὐτῶν ἀκάθαρτος ἔσταιLv 11:36
Only if the water be of fountains of water, or a pool, or confluence of water, it shall be clean; but he that touches their carcases shall be unclean.
Lv 11:36
Nevertheless a spring or a cistern in which water is a gathered shall be clean: but that which touches their carcass shall be unclean.
Lv 11:36Lv 11:36אַ֣ךְ מַעְיָ֥ן וּב֛וֹר מִקְוֵה־מַ֖יִם יִהְיֶ֣ה טָה֑וֹר וְנֹגֵ֥עַ בְּנִבְלָתָ֖ם יִטְמָֽא׃Lv 11:36
Nevertheless a spring or a cistern in which water is a gathered shall be clean: but that which touches their carcass shall be unclean.
37Lv 11:3737ἐὰν δὲ ἐπιπέσῃ τῶν θνησιμαίων αὐτῶν ἐπὶ πᾶν σπέρμα σπόριμον ὃ σπαρήσεται καθαρὸν ἔσταιLv 11:37
And if one of their carcases should fall upon any sowing seed which shall be sown, it shall be clean.
Lv 11:37
If part of their carcass falls on any sowing seed which is to be sown, it is clean.
Lv 11:37Lv 11:37וְכִ֤י יִפֹּל֙ מִנִּבְלָתָ֔ם עַל־כָּל־זֶ֥רַע זֵר֖וּעַ אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִזָּרֵ֑עַ טָה֖וֹר הֽוּא׃Lv 11:37
If part of their carcass falls on any sowing seed which is to be sown, it is clean.
38Lv 11:3838ἐὰν δὲ ἐπιχυθῇ ὕδωρ ἐπὶ πᾶν σπέρμα καὶ ἐπιπέσῃ τῶν θνησιμαίων αὐτῶν ἐπ’ αὐτό ἀκάθαρτόν ἐστιν ὑμῖνLv 11:38
But if water be poured on any seed, and one of their dead bodies fall upon it, it is unclean to you.
Lv 11:38
But if water is put on the seed, and part of their carcass falls on it, it is unclean to you.
Lv 11:38Lv 11:38וְכִ֤י יֻתַּן־מַ֙יִם֙ עַל־זֶ֔רַע וְנָפַ֥ל מִנִּבְלָתָ֖ם עָלָ֑יו טָמֵ֥א ה֖וּא לָכֶֽם׃ ס Lv 11:38
But if water is put on the seed, and part of their carcass falls on it, it is unclean to you.
39Lv 11:3939ἐὰν δὲ ἀποθάνῃ τῶν κτηνῶν ὅ ἐστιν ὑμῖν τοῦτο φαγεῖν ὁ ἁπτόμενος τῶν θνησιμαίων αὐτῶν ἀκάθαρτος ἔσται ἕως ἑσπέραςLv 11:39
And if one of the cattle die, which it is lawful for you to eat, he that touches their carcases shall be unclean till evening.
Lv 11:39
¶“‘If any animal, of which you may eat, dies; he who touches its carcass shall be unclean until the evening.
Lv 11:39Lv 11:39וְכִ֤י יָמוּת֙ מִן־הַבְּהֵמָ֔ה אֲשֶׁר־הִ֥יא לָכֶ֖ם לְאָכְלָ֑ה הַנֹּגֵ֥עַ בְּנִבְלָתָ֖הּ יִטְמָ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב׃Lv 11:39
¶“‘If any animal, of which you may eat, dies; he who touches its carcass shall be unclean until the evening.
40Lv 11:4040καὶ ὁ ἐσθίων ἀπὸ τῶν θνησιμαίων τούτων πλυνεῖ τὰ ἱμάτια καὶ ἀκάθαρτος ἔσται ἕως ἑσπέρας καὶ ὁ αἴρων ἀπὸ θνησιμαίων αὐτῶν πλυνεῖ τὰ ἱμάτια καὶ λούσεται ὕδατι καὶ ἀκάθαρτος ἔσται ἕως ἑσπέραςLv 11:40
And he that eats of their carcases shall wash his garments, and be unclean till evening; and he that carries any of their carcases shall wash his garments, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean till evening.
Lv 11:40
He who eats of its carcass shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the evening. He also who carries its carcass shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the evening.
Lv 11:40Lv 11:40וְהָֽאֹכֵל֙ מִנִּבְלָתָ֔הּ יְכַבֵּ֥ס בְּגָדָ֖יו וְטָמֵ֣א עַד־הָעָ֑רֶב וְהַנֹּשֵׂא֙ אֶת־נִבְלָתָ֔הּ יְכַבֵּ֥ס בְּגָדָ֖יו וְטָמֵ֥א עַד־הָעָֽרֶב׃Lv 11:40
He who eats of its carcass shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the evening. He also who carries its carcass shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the evening.
41Lv 11:4141καὶ πᾶν ἑρπετόν ὃ ἕρπει ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς βδέλυγμα τοῦτο ἔσται ὑμῖν οὐ βρωθήσεταιLv 11:41
And every reptile that creeps on the earth, this shall be an abomination to you; it shall not be eaten.
Lv 11:41
¶“‘Every creeping thing that creeps on the earth is an abomination. It shall not be eaten.
Lv 11:41Lv 11:41וְכָל־הַשֶּׁ֖רֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵ֣ץ עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ שֶׁ֥קֶץ ה֖וּא לֹ֥א יֵאָכֵֽל׃Lv 11:41
¶“‘Every creeping thing that creeps on the earth is an abomination. It shall not be eaten.
42Lv 11:4242καὶ πᾶς ὁ πορευόμενος ἐπὶ κοιλίας καὶ πᾶς ὁ πορευόμενος ἐπὶ τέσσαρα διὰ παντός ὃ πολυπληθεῖ ποσὶν ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς ἑρπετοῖς τοῖς ἕρπουσιν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς οὐ φάγεσθε αὐτό ὅτι βδέλυγμα ὑμῖν ἐστινLv 11:42
And every animal that creeps on its belly, and every one that goes on four feet continually, which abounds with feet among all the reptiles creeping upon the earth—ye shall not eat it, for it is an abomination to you.
Lv 11:42
Whatever goes on its belly, and whatever goes on all fours, or whatever has many feet, even all creeping things that creep on the earth, them you shall not eat; for they are an abomination.
Lv 11:42Lv 11:42כֹּל֩ הוֹלֵ֨ךְ עַל־גָּח֜וֹן וְכֹ֣ל ׀ הוֹלֵ֣ךְ עַל־אַרְבַּ֗ע עַ֚ד כָּל־מַרְבֵּ֣ה רַגְלַ֔יִם לְכָל־הַשֶּׁ֖רֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵ֣ץ עַל־הָאָ֑רֶץ לֹ֥א תֹאכְל֖וּם כִּי־שֶׁ֥קֶץ הֵֽם׃Lv 11:42
Whatever goes on its belly, and whatever goes on all fours, or whatever has many feet, even all creeping things that creep on the earth, them you shall not eat; for they are an abomination.
43Lv 11:4343καὶ οὐ μὴ βδελύξητε τὰς ψυχὰς ὑμῶν ἐν πᾶσι τοῖς ἑρπετοῖς τοῖς ἕρπουσιν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς καὶ οὐ μιανθήσεσθε ἐν τούτοις καὶ οὐκ ἀκάθαρτοι ἔσεσθε ἐν αὐτοῖςLv 11:43
And ye shall not defile your souls with any of the reptiles that creep upon the earth, and ye shall not be polluted with them, and ye shall not be unclean by them.
Lv 11:43
You shall not make yourselves abominable with any creeping thing that creeps, neither shall you make yourselves unclean with them, that you should be defiled thereby.
Lv 11:43Lv 11:43אַל־תְּשַׁקְּצוּ֙ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם בְּכָל־הַשֶּׁ֖רֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵ֑ץ וְלֹ֤א תִֽטַּמְּאוּ֙ בָּהֶ֔ם וְנִטְמֵתֶ֖ם בָּֽם׃Lv 11:43
You shall not make yourselves abominable with any creeping thing that creeps, neither shall you make yourselves unclean with them, that you should be defiled thereby.
44Lv 11:4444ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὑμῶν καὶ ἁγιασθήσεσθε καὶ ἅγιοι ἔσεσθε ὅτι ἅγιός εἰμι ἐγὼ κύριος ὁ θεὸς ὑμῶν καὶ οὐ μιανεῖτε τὰς ψυχὰς ὑμῶν ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς ἑρπετοῖς τοῖς κινουμένοις ἐπὶ τῆς γῆςLv 11:44
For I am the Lord your God; and ye shall be sanctified, and ye shall be holy, because I the Lord your God am holy; and ye shall not defile your souls with any of the reptiles creeping upon the earth.
Lv 11:44
For I am Yahweh your God. Sanctify yourselves therefore, and be holy; for I am holy: neither shall you defile yourselves with any kind of creeping thing that moves on the earth.
Lv 11:44Lv 11:44כִּ֣י אֲנִ֣י יְהוָה֮ אֱלֹֽהֵיכֶם֒ וְהִתְקַדִּשְׁתֶּם֙ וִהְיִיתֶ֣ם קְדֹשִׁ֔ים כִּ֥י קָד֖וֹשׁ אָ֑נִי וְלֹ֤א תְטַמְּאוּ֙ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁ֣תֵיכֶ֔ם בְּכָל־הַשֶּׁ֖רֶץ הָרֹמֵ֥שׂ עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃Lv 11:44
For I am Yahweh your God. Sanctify yourselves therefore, and be holy; for I am holy: neither shall you defile yourselves with any kind of creeping thing that moves on the earth.
45Lv 11:4545ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι κύριος ὁ ἀναγαγὼν ὑμᾶς ἐκ γῆς Αἰγύπτου εἶναι ὑμῶν θεός καὶ ἔσεσθε ἅγιοι ὅτι ἅγιός εἰμι ἐγὼ κύριοςLv 11:45
For I am the Lord who brought you up out of the land of Egypt to be your God; and ye shall be holy, for I the Lord am holy.
Lv 11:45
For I am Yahweh who brought you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God. You shall therefore be holy, for I am holy.
Lv 11:45Lv 11:45כִּ֣י ׀ אֲנִ֣י יְהוָ֗ה הַֽמַּעֲלֶ֤ה אֶתְכֶם֙ מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִצְרַ֔יִם לִהְיֹ֥ת לָכֶ֖ם לֵאלֹהִ֑ים וִהְיִיתֶ֣ם קְדֹשִׁ֔ים כִּ֥י קָד֖וֹשׁ אָֽנִי׃Lv 11:45
For I am Yahweh who brought you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God. You shall therefore be holy, for I am holy.
46Lv 11:4646οὗτος ὁ νόμος περὶ τῶν κτηνῶν καὶ τῶν πετεινῶν καὶ πάσης ψυχῆς τῆς κινουμένης ἐν τῷ ὕδατι καὶ πάσης ψυχῆς ἑρπούσης ἐπὶ τῆς γῆςLv 11:46
This is the law concerning beasts and birds and every living creature moving in the water, and every living creature creeping on the earth;
Lv 11:46
¶“‘This is the law of the animal, and of the bird, and of every living creature that moves in the waters, and of every creature that creeps on the earth,
Lv 11:46Lv 11:46זֹ֣את תּוֹרַ֤ת הַבְּהֵמָה֙ וְהָע֔וֹף וְכֹל֙ נֶ֣פֶשׁ הַֽחַיָּ֔ה הָרֹמֶ֖שֶׂת בַּמָּ֑יִם וּלְכָל־נֶ֖פֶשׁ הַשֹּׁרֶ֥צֶת עַל־הָאָֽרֶץ׃Lv 11:46
¶“‘This is the law of the animal, and of the bird, and of every living creature that moves in the waters, and of every creature that creeps on the earth,
47Lv 11:4747διαστεῖλαι ἀνὰ μέσον τῶν ἀκαθάρτων καὶ ἀνὰ μέσον τῶν καθαρῶν καὶ ἀνὰ μέσον τῶν ζωογονούντων τὰ ἐσθιόμενα καὶ ἀνὰ μέσον τῶν ζωογονούντων τὰ μὴ ἐσθιόμεναLv 11:47
to distinguish between the unclean and the clean; and between those that bring forth alive, such as should be eaten, and those that bring forth alive, such as should not be eaten.
Lv 11:47
to make a distinction between the unclean and the clean, and between the living thing that may be eaten and the living thing that may not be eaten.’”
Lv 11:47Lv 11:47לְהַבְדִּ֕יל בֵּ֥ין הַטָּמֵ֖א וּבֵ֣ין הַטָּהֹ֑ר וּבֵ֤ין הַֽחַיָּה֙ הַֽנֶּאֱכֶ֔לֶת וּבֵין֙ הַֽחַיָּ֔ה אֲשֶׁ֖ר לֹ֥א תֵאָכֵֽל׃ פ Lv 11:47
to make a distinction between the unclean and the clean, and between the living thing that may be eaten and the living thing that may not be eaten.’”
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